Al, T., Butler, K., Cunjak, R., & MacQuarrie, K. (2012, April). Opinion: Potential impact of shale gas exploitation on water resources. University of New Brunswick.
Brantley, S.L., Yoxtheimer, D., Arjmand, S., Grieve, P., Vidic, R., Pollak, J, … Simon, C. (2014). Water resource impacts during unconventional shale gas development: The Pennsylvania experience. International Journal of Coal Geology. Peer Reviewed.
Brufatto, C., Cochran, J., Conn, L., Power, D., El-Zeghaty, S.Z., … Rishman, L. (2003). From mud to cement — Building gas wells. Oilfield Review, 15(3), 62-76. Schlumberger.
Campbell, K. & Horne, M. (2011). Shale gas in British Columbia: Risks to B.C.’s Water resources. The Pembina Institute and The Pembina Foundation.
Council of Canadian Academies. (2014). Environmental impacts of shale gas extraction in Canada. Ottawa (ON): The Expert Panel on Harnessing Science and Technology to Understand the Environmental Impacts of Shale Gas Extraction, Council of Canadian Academies.
DiGiulio, D., Wilkin, R., & Oberley, G. (2011, December). DRAFT: Investigation of ground water contamination near Pavillion Wyoming. Environmental Protection Agency.
Eaton, T.T. (2013). Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply. Science of the Total Environment, 461-462, 158-169. Peer Reviewed.
Entrekin, S., Evans-White, M., Johnson, B., & Hagenbuch, E. (2011, October). Rapid expansion of natural gas development poses a threat to surface waters. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9(9), 503-511. Peer Reviewed.
Ernst Environmental Services. (2013, June). Brief review of threats to Canada’s groundwater from the oil and gas industry’s methane migration and hydraulic fracturing.
Ferrar, K.J., Michanowicz, D.R., Christen, C.L., Mulcahy, N., Malone, S.L., & Sharma, R.K. (2013). Assessment of effluent contaminants from three facilities discharging Marcellus Shale wastewater to surface waters in Pennsylvania. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(7), 3472-3481. Peer Reviewed.
Fontenot, B.E., Hunt, L.R., Heldenbrand, Z.L, Carlton Jr., D.D., Oka, H., Walton, J.L., … Schug, K.A. (2013). An evaluation of water quality in private drinking water wells near natural gas extraction sites in the Barnett Shale Formation. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(17), 10032-10040. Peer Reviewed.
Gregory, K.B., Vidic, R.D., & Dzomback, D.A. (2011, June). Water management challenges associated with the production of shale gas by hydraulic fracturing. Elements: An International Magazine of Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Petrology, 7(3), 181-186.
Gross, S.A., Avens, H.J., Banducci, A.M., Sahmel, J., Panko, J.M., & Tvermoes, B.E. (2013). Analysis of BTEX groundwater concentrations from surface spills associated with hydraulic fracturing operations. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 63(4), 424-432.
Haluszczak, L.O., Rose, A.W. , & Kump, L.R. (2013). Geochemical evaluation of flowback brine from Marcellus gas wells in Pennsylvania, USA. Applied Geochemistry, 28, 55-61. Peer Reviewed.
Hansen, E., Mulvaney, D., Betcher, M. (2013, October). Water resource reporting and water footprint from Marcellus Shale development in West Virginia and Pennsylvania: Final Report. Downstream Strategies and San Jose State University. Prepared for Earthworks Oil & Gas Accountability Project.
Harris, B., Cascadden, J., Giles, A. Machellan, K., Summers, K., West, J. & Whalen, M. (2013). Out of control: Nova Scotia’s experience with fracking for shale gas. Nova Scotia Fracking Resource and Action Coalition.
Hazen and Sawyer. (2009). Impact assessment of natural gas production in the New York City water supply watershed: Final impact assessment report. New York City Department of Environmental Protection.
Horwitt, D. (2011, August). Cracks in the façade: 25 Years Ago the EPA Linked “Fracking” to Water Contamination. Environmental Working Group.
Ingraffia, A.R. (2013). Fluid migration mechanisms due to faulty well design and/or construction: An overview and recent experiences in the Pennsylvania Marcellus Play. Physicians Scientists & Engineers for Healthy Energy.
Jackson, R.B., Vengosh, A., Darrah, T.H., Warner, N.R., Down, A., Poreda, R.J., … Karr, J.D. (2013). Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences. Early edition. Peer Reviewed.
Jiang, M., Hendrickson, C., & Vanbriesen, J. (2013, December). Life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus Shale gas well. Environmental Science & Technology. Peer Reviewed.
Lustgarten, A. (2008). Buried secrets: Is natural gas drilling endangering U.S water supplies? ProPublica.
Michaels, C., Simpson, J., & Wegner, W. (2010, September). Fractured communities: Case studies of the environmental impacts of industrial gas drilling. Riverkeeper.
Mooney, C. (2011, October). The truth about fracking. Scientific American, 305, 80-85.
Myers, T. (2012). Potential contaminant pathways from hydraulically fractured shale to aquifers. Groundwater, 50(6), 872-882. Peer Reviewed.
Myers, T. (2012). Review of DRAFT: Investigation of ground water contamination near Pavillion Wyoming, prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency. Commissioned by Natural Resources Defense Council.
Nelson, J. (2009). Frack Attack: New dirty gas drilling method threatens drinking water. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
Nelson, J. (2010). Fracking – natural gas affects water quality. Watershed Sentinel, 20(2).
Osborn, S., Vengosh, A., Warner, N., & Jackson, R. (2011). Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas well drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(20), 8172-8176. Peer Reviewed.
Parfitt B. (2010, October). Fracture lines: Will Canada’s water be protected in the rush to develop shale gas? Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto.
Parfitt, B. (2011, November). Fracking up our water, hydro power and climate: BC’s reckless pursuit of shale gas. Climate Justice Project, CCPA-BC and University of British Columbia.
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. (2009). Methane gas and your water well.
Rozell, D.J. & Reaven, S.J. (2012). Water pollution risk associated with natural gas extraction from the Marcellus Shale. Risk Analysis, 32(8), 1382-93. Peer Reviewed.
Vengosh, A., Warner, N., Jackson, R, & Darrah, T. (2013). The effects of shale gas exploration and hydraulic fracturing on the quality of water resources in the United States. Procedia Earth and Planteary Science, 7, 863-866. Peer Reviewed.
Warner, N.R., Christie, C.A., Jackson, R.B., & Vengosh, A. (2013). Impacts of shale gas wastewater disposal on water quality in Western Pennsylvania. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(20), 11849-11857. Peer Reviewed.
Warner, N.R., Jackson, R.B., Darrah, T.H., Osborn, S.G., Down, A., Zhao, K.,… Vengosh, A. (2012). Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(30), 11961-11966. Peer Reviewed.